Infection Prevention And Control

Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a practical, evidence-based strategy that protects patients and healthcare workers from preventable infection and antibiotic resistance.

infection prevention and control

Effective IPC necessitates continuous activity at all levels of the health system, including policymakers, facility administrators, health professionals, and patients. IPC is unique in the realm of patient safety and quality of care since it applies to every health professional and patient at every health care contact. Defective IPC causes damage and can be fatal. It is impossible to provide adequate health care without effective IPC.

Infection: Invasion and proliferation of microorganisms that are not typically present in the body, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. An infection might create no symptoms and be subclinical, or it can induce symptoms and be clinically noticeable.

Infection prevention and control affects many elements of health care, including hand cleanliness, surgical site infections, injection safety, antibiotic resistance, and how hospitals operate during and after catastrophes. Programs to promote IPC are especially essential in low- and middle-income countries, where health-care delivery and medical hygiene standards may be jeopardized and negatively effected by secondary infections.

infection prevention and control

When a germ penetrates a person’s body and causes harm, this is referred to as an infection.

The microbe relies on that person’s body to survive, reproduce, and colonize. Pathogens are these infectious tiny creatures that may multiply fast. Pathogens include the following.

  • viruses
  • bacteria
  • fungi

They have the ability to spread in a variety of ways, including:

  • the exchange of body fluids
  • consuming tainted food or water
  • breathing particles or droplets in the air
  • skin to skin contact
  • interaction with feces
  • touching an object that has also been handled by a person harboring the virus

In this post, we will discuss the many forms of illnesses, how to decrease your risk of infection, and what symptoms they produce.


infection prevention and control

The pathogen determines how an illness spreads and its effects on the human body.

The immune system serves as a strong barrier against infectious pathogens. Pathogens, on the other hand, can occasionally outnumber the immune system’s ability to combat them. An infection becomes dangerous at this point.

Some pathogens have little or no effect. Others generate poisons or inflammatory chemicals that cause the body to react negatively. Because of this diversity, some infections are minor and scarcely apparent, whilst others can be serious and life threatening. Some microorganisms are resistant to antibiotics.

The transmission of infection can occur in a variety of ways.

Pathogens are classified as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. They differ in a number of ways, including:

  • function
  • shape
  • size
  • genetic composition
  • how they affect the body

Viruses, for example, are less than the size of bacteria. They infiltrate the host and take over the cells, whereas bacteria can exist without a host.

Treatment will be determined by the source of the infection. This article will concentrate on the four most frequent and lethal forms of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

Infections caused by viruses.

infection prevention and control

Infection with a virus causes viral infections. There might be millions of distinct viruses, but researchers have only found approximately 5,000 so far. Viruses carry a little amount of genetic information. And are protected by a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules.

Viruses infiltrate a host and adhere to cells. They release their genetic material when they enter the cell. The virus multiplies as a result of this substance forcing the cell to rethe common cold. Which is caused mostly by rhinoviruses, coronaviruses. And adenovirusesproduce the virus. When a cell dies, new viruses are released, infecting new cells.

However, not all viruses kill their host cell. Some of these alter the cell’s function. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can cause cancer by causing uncontrolled cell replication.

A virus can also specifically target specific age groups, such as babies or early children.

Viruses can be latent for a while before reproducing anew. The person infected with the virus may appear to have totally healed, but they may become ill again if the virus reactivates.

Among the viral illnesses are:

  • the common cold, which is caused mostly by rhinoviruses, coronaviruses. And adenoviruses.
  • COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus infection. That is presently creating a worldwide epidemic.
  • encephalitis and meningitis caused by enteroviruses. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and West Nile virus
  • HPV and HSV are to blame for warts and skin infections.
  • gastroenteritis, which is caused by the norovirus

Among the other viral conditions are:

  • The Zika virus
  • polio
  • Hepatitis C is a virus that infects the liver
  • H1N1 swine flu is an example of influenza (flu)
  • Dengue fever
  • Ebola
  • Respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV)

While the disease is progressing, antiviral medicines can help alleviate the symptoms of some viruses. They can either stop the virus from replicating or strengthen the host’s immune system to counteract the infection’s effects.

Antibiotics have no effect on viruses. These medications will not stop the virus, and their use increases the likelihood of antibiotic resistance.

The majority of therapy tries to alleviate symptoms while the immune system fights the infection on its own.


The symptoms of an infection are determined by the organism responsible for the illness. As well as the location of the infection.

Viruses specifically target cells in the genital tract or the upper respiratory tract. The rabies virus, for example, is a virus that attacks the neurological system. Some viruses attack skin cells, resulting in warts.

Others attack a broader spectrum of cells, resulting in a variety of symptoms. The flu virus can produce a runny nose, muscular pains, and stomach discomfort.

A bacterial infection causes redness, heat, swelling, fever, and discomfort at the site of infection, as well as enlarged lymph nodes.

Skin rash may be caused by a fungal infection of the skin. Viruses and bacteria. On the other hand, can cause skin disorders including rashes.

Common prion disease symptoms include sudden onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive problems. They can also cause plaque accumulation in the brain, leading this organ to deteriorate.


There is no one strategy that can prevent all infectious illnesses. People should, however, take the following precautions to decrease the risk of transmission:

  • Hands should be washed often. Especially before and after preparing food and using the restroom.
  • Receive and maintain any prescribed immunizations.
  • Disinfect bacteria-infested areas, such as the kitchen and bathroom.
  • Personal goods such as toothbrushes, combs, razor blades, drinking glasses, and cooking utensils should not be shared.
  • Keep perishable foods at room temperature for as long as possible while preparing a meal.
  • Take antibiotics only with a prescription and make sure to finish the entire course, even if symptoms improve sooner.
  • Reduce your risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) by getting frequent STI screenings, using condoms, or abstaining entirely.
  • Follow your doctor’s instructions when traveling or working while suffering from an infectious disease, as doing so may spread the sickness to others.

Maintaining an active lifestyle and eating a nutritionally balanced diet can assist to strengthen the immune system. And prime the body’s defenses against many forms of illness.

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